Music Lessons For Guitar, Bass, Ukulele and Keyboards Are Back!!

I am open for music lessons for any of the above mentioned instruments plus songwriting.
During these difficult time some of you may not feel sure with the start up of learning a musical instrument, something which is understandable.
On the other hand, this may be the time to make a start with learning a new skill such as playing the guitar. Music is a friend for life and it can comfort you in difficult situations such as the times we are having right now.

My lessons are flexible in terms of days and times. You can visit me at my house or I can come to yours, depending on what you want. During the lessons we do keep a distance and make sure we work according the guidelines as set out by the government. If people are interested in On-line lessons, that can be arrange too, just let me know.

Most of the lessons are for one hour, but they can be longer or shorter, all depending on what you would want.
If you are not sure yet about what to do, you can have a introductory lesson. This will give you an idea of what it takes to learn to play a musical instrument.
It is best to bring your own musical instrument along, if you do not have one we can make a arrangement for you in order to use one.

Some of you may have thought about taking up a musical instrument, but are not sure about what to buy at the moment. Feel free to contact me. I can give you advise and pointers as in what to look for and what to buy.

Over the next few weeks I hope to put out more videos, some of those will be just music, some of them will be tutorial videos with ideas and suggestions for particular playing techniques.

For all of you interested in music and learning to play a musical instrument, keep checking out this site for any more updates.

Hope to catch you soon again.

Banjo Lesson: Combine Melodic Style with Forward, Reverse and Alternating Roll

This lesson does contain two basic, different ideas .
The first idea is made up of a G and G7 chord over two bars which are being repeated. Both bars consist of the forward- and reverse roll combined with the Pinch and a Melodic idea:

D ———–0——————-3——- ————0———–3—2—-0——–
B ——0——————–0———— ——–0——0———————0—-
G –0——0——-0———-0——- —0——-0———-0——————-
D —————————————– ———————————————
G —————————————– ———————————————–

N,B: Notice Pinch contains melody and melodic run-down at end.

The second idea contains 4 bars made up of the alternating roll, which is played by alternating G (5th) string with the D (4th) string while sticking the G (3rd) string in between . The Melodic ideas are all played on the D (4th) string:

D ————————————————– ———————————————
B ————————————————– ———————————————
G ————0————0——–0—–0——- ——–0——–0———————-0–
D ——————–0—————–0———– ————-0—————3—2–0—–
G —0————————-0——————— —0—————————————-

D —————————————————- ———————————————
B —————————————————- ———————————————-
G ————0———–0——–0——0——– ——–0——0—————————-
D ——————0——————-0———– ————-0—————-3——-5—-
G —0————————-0——————– —-0—————————————-

N.B: Observe all 4 bars are made up of similar alternating roll which changes towards end of 2nd and 4th bar.

Check out video at bottom of this article where I play these two basic ideas combined with more melodic, improvised ideas.

Hope you like this simple Banjo lesson, there will be more articles related to the Banjo in the near future, just keep checking the blog from time to time..

Thanks and hope to see you again soon!

Eddie de Hamer Now Available for Banjo Lessons in Leeds

I can offer Banjo lessons to a high standard of playing.
Anyone who wants to learn to play the Banjo is welcome, I can help you with the styles of Blue Grass, Old Time or you may simply want to learn the Banjo for your own playing style. Is is all possible, simply get in touch through the contact page on this site to let me know about your interests and we can take it from there.

Banjos come in a variety of instruments. The most common one you will find today is the 5-string Banjo, but there is also a 4-string Banjo, called the Tenor. Then there is the Long-Scale Banjo, which was popularised by Pete Seeger in the 1960s.
Whatever Banjo you want to learn, I can help you to improve your playing style. just get in touch!

Guitar Players who want to give the Banjo a try may find it relatively straight forward, since the Banjo tuning is not too different from the Guitar Tuning: High E is tuned down to a D. The B, G and D string remain the same! The low A is tuned down to a G.
The tuning you end up with is a G chord: The Banjo is tuned to a open G!

The string configuration is a bit different to a guitar: The first four strings go up in gauge, the 5th string, which on the guitar would be just below your low E, is of a similar gauge as the 1st string. It is often used as a drone string, although this may depend on what you actually play!

Thinking about the playing technique: The Banjo is often picked. The picking patterns are called “Rolls”: They are basically a set way of picking the string in a particular order. There are a handful of popular Rolls which are used regularly. Any guitar player who does use Finger Picking Style will be able to get the hang of these rolls quickly!

The Banjo is not often strummed, but you can strum it, just like a guitar. The instrument does not sound as loud as when it is being picked.

As far as the tuning: The D,B,G,D,G (high to low) goes, this is the regular five string Banjo tuning, but other tunings will work as well. It is just a case of experimenting with what you like.

Here is a brief video where I use a variety of techniques to get a very short piece across:

I will create more videos where I will demo particular Banjo techniques.
There will also be more articles here about Banjos and their playing style.
Thanks and hope to see you soon again,

A Introduction to Loop-and Delay Pedals with Hold Function

For this article a brief outline about loop pedals. It will include what they do, the various functions you can find on them and their history.

What are Loop Pedals?:
A loop pedal is a simple device which lets you record and playback a musical idea.

What Can Loop Pedals Do?
A basic loop pedal will let you record your guitar. You can then play back this recording and add other parts to augment your previous made recording. There may be a control to balance the overall sound of your loop.

More advanced looper pedals will offer you more functions: You may find a start/stop function which will let you bring in your loop any time you want it. You may only want to have your loop in one part of a song you play. The loop may work as a extra part. All you need to do is start your loop at the time you want it to come in, and stop it where you want to end it.

There may be a function which will let you set the rhythm of your loop.

Some loop pedals come with a Automatic Start function, this function will let you start recording a soon as you start playing a note.

Your loop pedal may have a Save function, which will let you preserve the loop you have just created for any future moment when you want to use it.

There are loop pedals which come with pre sets for either/or rhythm tracks of drums or backing tracks of various musical styles. This may be ideal for guitarists who like to work with generic pre recorded musical ideas instead of creating their own, individual musical ideas.

You may come across loop pedals which do have a dedicated XLR input for a microphone. In this case you will be able to use your voice alongside your guitar signal.

The earliest, and most basic form of loop pedals are delay pedals with a hold function. The first pedals of this kind started to emerge in the early 1980s.
The hold function on most of these pedals is very short. They may contain just enough time for you to hold one chord, certainly not enough time for looping a whole sequence of chords. Overdub functions did not exist: You simply record over your previous recorded sound. This recording technique is called “Sound-on-Sound”: Each time your record over your original recording, the quality of original will get weaker. As one can imagine, there is a limit to how many times you can record over your original idea, since the original recording will disappear as too many parts are recorded over it. Sound-on Sound is a valid and useful technique but requires some planning and a little experience as to how many parts you can record over your original idea.
As the 1980s progressed delay pedals started to have longer delay-and hold times. Some of them did have a hold time for a full two seconds, which is good enough for 1.5 bar of music in 4/4
The overdub function was still often Sound-on-Sound with the result of loss in quality for your loop once you started overdubbing.
Towards the end of the late 1990s and early 2000 we see the emergence of dedicated loop pedals. Newer, better digital technology meant longer loop times and overdubbing without the loss of any quality for your original recording.
Today you can find any kind of looper pedal you may want. All have their own dedicated purpose and function.
When you are new to looping you may want to start your journey into looping with a basic delay pedal with a hold function: It will teach you the technique how to set up your basic loop. True, a basic pedal will be more primitive compared to a more advanced, dedicated loop station pedal, but it is also more fun. You will learn quickly how to set up creative loops. In the meantime you will see its strengths and weaknesses. Once you upgrade to a better loop station your learning curve will be short since you already have mastered your basic loop skills. You will enjoy your time with your new looper straight away instead of being frustrated over not being able to create smooth loops for your music.

Here two videos I have made for loop pedals: One is with the Boss Delay DD7, this pedal is a delay pedal with a hold function for 40 seconds, no save or stop/start functions. The loop will repeat itself as soon as you finished recording. In the video I do mute the sound of the loop by turning down its volume with a volume pedal. The DD7 will allow you to turn down the volume of your loop by using the level control. The volume will be turned down, but this will not stop the loop. The loop will keep playing until you erase its content!

The next video here where I used to Boss RC-2, which is a dedicated loop station which contains 16 minutes of recording time for creating loops. It also contains various drum guides which you can use along side your loop. You can hear me using a drum guide on the actual loop. The RC-2 does also come with a Save and Stop/Start function. Most dedicated Loop Station pedals will have these functions.

The PDS series from Digitech are one of those pedals which use” Sound-on-Sound” for their Looping-and Sample Function. On this particular model you can stop your loop, but you cannot save it.

Hope you found this article useful and enjoyable.
Looking forward to see you again here in the future.

Chorus Effects: A Brief Guide

This article is a brief guide to chorus effects. It explains what Chorus is. What In-and Out Puts they have? What are the typical controls and applications of a Chorus effect? What variations are there among the various Chorus effects?
The article is not a guide to the various Chorus pedals which exist. Any brands mentioned in this article only serves as a example for a particular sound.

Chorus is a form of Delay optimized for a specific function. A typical guitar signal will sound fuller and more animated once processed through a Chorus effect compared to the signal being without any form of processing.

Delay times of 10 to 25 mS will start to produce Chorus sounds. Some Chorus brands may even give you a shorter delay range to alter the colour and sound of the particular unit.
A delay range of 25 mS and anywhere above will give you Slapback Echo and other forms of Echo and Spacial effects.

The first Chorus effects for Musical Instruments started to appear in the mid-to late 1970s. Most of them used the “Bucket-Brigade Device” (BBD) technology. Later on, in the 1980s, as digital technology became more available and less expansive, more Chorus units started to use the newer, digital technology. In general, digital Chorus effects tend to be brighter and less noisy compared to the earlier BBD examples.

In-and Out Puts:
Most Chorus effects will have one Input and one-or two Outputs: One for a Mono output, this output combines the straight signal with the Chorused sound. The second Output may contain the straight signal or a out-of phase ( inverted) sound. The inverted Output will make your sound a little duller or brighter. Using both outputs will make the Chorus sound fuller and Spacial.

Typical Controls:
Speed (or Rate): This control will let you vary the speed of the modulation. It will give you the sense of your sound speeding up or slowing down.

Depth (or Width): This control will let you vary the depth of the modulation. Increasing the depth will make the Chorus appear fuller in sound.

Effect Level: This control will let you dial in more-or less of the given Chorus effect.

Delay Time: This control will let you fine-tune the range of the Delay for the Chorus.

EQ: This control will let you choose the band range from low to high frequency range. Basically it will make your Chorus sound duller or brighter depending on the setting of this control.

Input: This control will allow you to set the input level of the overall volume level. Turn it all the way down and you will have no sound! Open up the control fully and you may get unwanted distortion.
Input controls often come with a combined overload Led. It is a handy way to tell you what your optimum input signal should be.

Some Chorus units may come with a switch which lets you toggle between Vibrato and Chorus, or Vibrato and Flange. There may even be controls to vary the Delay, Speed and Depth of the Vibrato.

Typical Applications:

Vibrato: Increase depth and delay time to create a extreme sound. Doing the opposite will give you a gentler and less extreme Vibrato sound.

Rotating Speaker Simulation (Leslie Effect): Increase the speed and depth. Use two Chorus effects to fully exploit this sound:
Set up one unit for a slow speed while the other one is set up for a faster speed. Connect both units to a A/B box, toggle between the two units to experience your sound slowing down and speeding up again, just as you would when using a Leslie Cabinet.

Gentle Chorus: Speed and depth are both half way up to create a less dry guitar sound.

Variations in Chorus Sound:

The Boss family came out of the CE-1 with its fine and sophisticated sound. This sound has become very popular over time. It is also a sound which has been copied by many different type of brands.

Electro Harmonix produced some Chorus pedals which contain a rougher, more primitive and therefore unique sound sound. Examples of this are the Clone Theory and later version of the Memory Man.
Between those two opposites lie many subtle variations. My examples of the Boss-and Electro-Harmonix type of sound only serve as a guide for your ears. As you research the various Chorus types around also check out some of the sounds as found on Pitch Shifters. Some of these can give you Chorus sounds which you cannot obtain using standard, basic Chorus units.

There are no good and bad Chorus sounds: some you may find more inspiring compared to others. One particular unit may be better for a certain application compared to another one. Being aware of some of those aspects will help with your choose what kind of Chorus is good for you.

I will create more articles about Delays and Flangers in the near future.

Hope to see you soon again,

Guitar Talk with Creative Guitarist Eddie de Hamer : Tips on How to Become a Better Slide Guitar Player

The use of a Slide can add a complete new dimension to your Guitar Playing. It is a amazing experience to listen to melodies coming to your ears from a Guitar played by using a Slide. If you have never used a Slide before you simply will not know what the experience is like.
In this article I will explore the various roles Slide playing can play for your music.

Never used a Slide before in your life? Do not know what “Slide” stands for? No sure what kind of Slide to get? Do not worry, the next video will answer all these questions as it will explain in detail how to get started with Slide Guitar. Watch the video in its full length. It will explain about how to use-and hold your fingers, what kind of Slide to use, how to Set-Up your Guitar, your String Gauge and how to actually play the guitar whilst using a Slide.

Okay so now we know how to get started with a Slide, let us now make some music by using a Slide.
The next video shows mainly Singe Note Slide playing. The sound of the Slide is very natural and does not contain any sound processing whatsoever. The focus is not so much on the Slide, the Slide only forms part of the music which develops throughout the course of the video. I used a Slide mainly to get a difference in sound. The sound difference creates a contrast between the sound of the delays and the loops. This variety in sound may be one of the reasons why you may want to use a Slide for yourself since the sound of a Slide is unique. You can use the Slide in any way you want really, no reason you should not want to try using one!

The next video demos the role of the Slide in a more prominent role: The sound of the Slide is much fuller compared to previous video: The sound is more traditional and was treated with the use a OverDrive pedal. Using a Overdrive pedal makes the sound of the Slide stand out more. It sits better in the context of the rest of the music soundwise. The music is fairly traditional compared to the music of the previous video hence my choice for a more traditional sound of the Slide as well.
In terms of playing I use the Slide to enhance the notes of the riff and solo. I also use the Slide to play harmonically for the use of those “A” shape chord types. Even the Loop pedal is used in combination with the Slide. Every Tool used in this video serves the purpose of the sound of the Music!

Both last videos show how you can use a Slide in a very different and unique way. The first video is good for a general overview of what is on offer sonically by using a Slide.
There are other ways how one can use a Slide, I will write about those others ways of playing with a Slide for future blogs.
Hope you will have find this helpful for your own Guitar Playing and Music Making and hope to see you soon again for more.

Thanks and Enjoy!

Guitar Talk with Creative Guitarist Eddie de Hamer==Choose the Guitar Style which Works for You!==

The guitar is a wonderful instrument, it offers you lots of options but as a Guitar Player you need to make a choice about what it is you want to achieve. You can play Acoustic and aim for the Singer-Songwriter approach. You could learn to play Electric Guitar and get used to playing with a lot of Sound Effects. The actual instrument of choice, either Acoustic or Electric, does not make any difference to the physics of playing the guitar: Chord fingerings will be the same for either Acoustic or Electric, the lay-out of the notes on the fret board is similar for both the Acoustic and Electric. The big difference lies in the feel and sound of the Guitar. Most Acoustics will have larger neck and the strings may feel a little stiffer, but once you have learned to play the Guitar there is no real difference between playing a Acoustic or Electric instrument. The sound of a Acoustic guitar comes mainly from the body of the Guitar, whereas the sound of a Electric guitar comes mainly from the Amp you use. This Amp is usually placed a little further away from the Guitar, therefore the sound may be a little less intimate compared to the sound of a Acoustic.
Besides the differences in sound and feel of the Acoustic and Electric guitar there is also the difference in approach. Playing a Electric guitar with a lot of Sound Effects and using a Multiple Amplifier set-up require a different skill set from the Guitarist compared to playing Solo Finger Style Classical Guitar. For this article I will have a look at some of the styles a Guitar Player may choose to play, and what this choice means in terms of skills and approach to playing the instrument.

Since most people will get introduced to Playing the Guitar by the Acoustic Guitar let us have a look at Playing the Guitar on your own, using your Voice and Playing and Writing Songs.
For this approach you do need to be able to Sing with the Guitar at the same time. You could either play Cover Songs or Your Own Songs.

Writing your Own Songs can be a very pleasing experience, but it requires a new skill set: Being able to create your own songs. The beauty of this approach is: Your own songs do not need to fit any criteria. The standards you set for yourself are good enough, which means you can get started straight away and play with what you know!
The more you write the better your songs will become. Once you get hooked your standards may change, but this is only natural as it all forms part of the process of growth as a Musician and Song Writer.

Here is one way of the Singer/Song Writer approach.

Now check out this video here, a different way of Playing, more raw and less sophisticated. Still, it is using the Guitar in the Singer/Songwriter approach.

Needless to say, within the Singer/Songwriter approach a lot is possible, there are many unique styles, all of them can be as deep and pleasing as you want them to be.
For the Singer/Songwriter approach a Guitarist only need to have a guitar and sing, not much else in terms of additional equipment is needed, fantastic!

Let me now have a look at Playing the Electric guitar as a Solo-Instrumentalist approach.
In terms of skills, a Guitarist will need to be able to play melodies, improvise, and work with various sounds the Electric Guitar can offer. You do want to be able to change sounds, since this will make your songs not all sound the same from top to bottom.
Changing sounds on the Electric Guitar can be done as simply by changing the Pick-up selector: You could play your chords for the backing through the Neck Pick-Up. For Solos and Melodies you may want to choose the brighter, Bridge Pick-Up. All depending on your taste.
Another way to change sounds is by using Guitar Pedals or other Rack-Kind of Effects. This approach requires the Guitarist to have a interest in technical details about Sound and Effects Processing. It is a wonderful, deep world, but it may not be for everybody!
Here a short video of the Instrumentalist Approach:

Needless to say this approach to playing the guitar can be very deep and pleasing at the same time. The down side may be the need for additional equipment, but one can keep things as simple as possible.

So far we have looked at music which stays within the boundaries of one song-idea. What about playing music which is constantly changing as we go along. Music which is a bit like a symphony: There is scope for a lot of development within the music. How can this be achieved with one Guitar?
Well it can be done with the use of some Loop Pedals in combination with the use of some other Guitar Effects.
In terms of skills for this approach: a Guitarist will need to know a little Music Theory to create the music, have a awareness of Sounds and Musical Ideas which go together to make something sound like it all belongs and does not start to sound like a mess. In other words: You need to have a vision of what it is you want to achieve.

Here is a short video of this kind of approach:

In addition to standard playing I also use a Slide in this video. Slide Guitar is ,off course, another unique style of playing the guitar. It is a style with requires it own approach. It is steeped in tradition, but you can make it personal. Slide Guitar is very deep and there are many different artists out there who have a totally different way of using the Slide in their own music

A last style I want to highlight is: Making Sounds with the guitar by using gadgets. Gadgets such as day to day objects, like a cork, elastic band or paper clip.
Attaching day to day objects to the strings of the guitar is the called the art of Prepared Guitar. I have written about this approach in a previous blog, check it out here if you want to learn more about it:

The style of making sounds with the guitar is sometimes called: Sound Scape. It is possible to use those sounds into songs, or compositions. One could also just make sounds and not really relate those sounds to any music. Again the choice is up to the individual Guitarist, what you know and your own taste.

The styles I have high lighted here are only a snap shot, there are many many more styles known to the world of music. I have mainly used elements of styles I work with for myself from time to time. Check out the styles you like and see what you can do with them for yourself as a Guitar Player.

Once you have read through all of this you may wonder where it is you should start with your own playing? I would say, get started with what you know and what you like and build onto that style over time. Keep at it and keep working on the various elements which make up part of a particular style of playing. Yes I know, it does require a lot of time, but playing the guitar, and making music, is a life time skill. As long as you keep working on Music you Playing Style will grow.

Hope to see you all again soon in the New Year.

Prepared Guitar and Extended Guitar Techniques

The world around us is constantly changing and music-and other art forms-is not immune to this change as well.Throughout times musicians have explored new avenues of making music.

Towards the end of the 19th Century composers like Bartok and Stravinsky experimented with elements of Folk music to enhance and enrich the sound of their own compositions.
The new experiments of composers lead to changes in the role of traditional harmony in classical music whilst the function of rhythmic structures within the music became more prominent.

In the 20th Century new technological advancements opened up new possibilities for musicians to work with: Improved microphone technology made it possible to create detailed, close-up recordings of instruments in orchestras. This meant that instruments like harps could now now be heard whereas before advancement of close up recording, their sound was simply lost among the sound of other instruments.
New improvements in amplification, magnetic pick-ups and loudspeaker systems opened up different roles for guitar players in orchestras: Guitarist, in larger orchestras in the early 20th Century, where usually asked to play chords and simply be part of the rhythm section. Before the advancement of amplification the sound of a single note on a guitar string could not be heard among the sound of Trumpets and Saxophones. The use of magnetic pick-ups and amplifiers made it now possible for guitar players to improvise solos with single notes, arpeggios and small partial chordal embellishments.

The new technological changes were not only responsible for changing the way musicians approached their instruments, they also gave birth to new styles of music such as Serialism, Minimalism, Avnt-Farde and Rock Music.

The nature of this article is simply too short to explore in full the history, and impact of changes-on the music of the 20th and 21st century. However, we can have a look at what musicians can do for themselves to embrace change. This brings us to the term of “Prepared Technique”

What is “Prepared Technique” you may wonder? It is simply a technique to achieve sounds which can normally not be explored through traditional ways of playing the instrument.
One way to achieve different sounds is to attach a device (any day to day object will do!) to your instrument. In our case, we take the strings of the guitar and attach a object to it. The object can be in the form of a cork, a elastic band or a Capo with released tension. Using your Capo in this manner means your strings will not be clear in sound. They will sound muted and dull. The high, melody strings will sound metallic and muffled.

Why would you want your strings to sound this way, since you can no longer play what you are used to play? Now here lies your answer: You will find new ways to play the guitar since the traditional ways will no longer work. Through experimentation you will discover what kind of sounds are now available. The rewards of your experimentation will be greeted by the emergence of a new kind of music. A form of music you may not have been aware of before. You will soon start to play with elements of music such as pitch and timbre (the tonal quality of your notes). These elements may now become more important compared to playing traditional chord structures. Your standard chord shapes may no longer work because of how you have treated your strings. No a problem since you have discovered a new way to explore the sounds of those strings.

Check out video at the bottom of this page.It will give you a idea of what kind of sounds you can get with a little experimentation with a Capo and a elastic band.

On the same video you will notice that I pull of a string of the Fretboard. I will write about this technique in a next article.
Stay tuned for now and keep on playing.

Updates GuitarTutorLeeds. Com

It has been some time since the publication of any new articles her on the blog.Please do not think for a moment that I have lost my interest in communicating with you what I love most of all: Making music and playing the guitar.
Since the publication of the last article there have been some new revelations about how to play the guitar. None of this is new for me really, it just means there has been more time for exploration and experimentation with various guitar techniques, set-ups of equipment and different ways of playing the guitar to achieve new sounds. I want to share some of my new found insights here with you in future blog articles.

I am looking forward to creating regular , new articles for you, just like what you where used to read here before. New articles about guitar playing skills, making music, guitar-sound, musical equipment and different ways of how to approach playing the guitar.
Hope you will like what you will find here and that it will inspire you to keep on playing your guitar.
Thanks and hope to you soon again!

Jam Sessions At Royal Park Pub, Headingley, Leeds, Starting Mon. 25th of June 2018

On Monday the 25th of June 2018 Jam Sessions at Royal Park Pub,  39 Queen’s Road, Headingley, Leeds, LS6 1NY will start.
Sessions will start at 8.30 pm

The main idea behind the sessions is that people play music with each other. The sessions are open to musicians of any level.
Please bring along small amplification if your instrument needs some form of amplification.

We welcome different kind of instruments, any instrument is welcome!
At the Jam Sessions there will be Bass and Drums which are able to give you a strong backing to any kind of music you would like to play.

The music we can play at the Jam Sessions varies: It can be music people have played before but would like to try out now with different, new musicians.  There is the change to try out new musical ideas on the spot, good for creative musicians who love making up their own parts and compositions.

Here a few keywords, styles of music which may give you a bit of a idea what is possible on the night:  Fusion, Jazz, Alternative Music, Ambient, Electronic Dance, Experimental Music, Electric, Alternative Blues, Traditional Blues and Folk, Americana, Alternative Country, West-Coast Style.

The list of influences and people we like is too big to mention, we draw inspiration from any kind of style, as long as it feels and sounds good,  we are into it!

Key element to the night is to create a good vibe we can all enjoy and be part of.

The Sessions will run every last Monday of the month, please check my facebook for details as I will post them there first!

Hope to meet you soon at one of the Jam Sessions.